In a paper from the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, researchers demonstrated they could make an energy harvesting microbial fuel cell out of paper.

Now the paper-based microfluidics systems are gaining more publicity because of its low expense, fast prototyping and easy design and fabrication techniques, inherent capillary motion fluid transfer, high surface-to-volume ratio (SVR), biodegradability and can be combined with regular tools.

The main gain of paper dependent microfluidics is the self-fluidic transfer phenomenon culminating in replacing external pumps used in fluidic microchannels. A variety of microfluidic papers applications have been demonstrated. These electrodes' electrical properties, such as conductivity, porosity, electrode location, and cell architecture, play a crucial role in how much electricity from the MPMFC is generated.

S. Putrefaciens are bacteria which, without any supply of oxygen, can live and develop at higher pressure. Many experiments have been performed on the efficiency of microbes for generating electricity, but few studies have regarded the way to classify fuel cell efficiency based on the comparison of optical capacity. The fuel cell's electron transfer is the cause power is produced.

The electron transport depends on enzymatic breakdown of metabolic byproducts of bacteria, the charge and receptor capacity of the bacteria and the translocation action of these particular metabolites in the cell membrane.

We need alternate renewable energy options for affordable, safe, and green energy needs. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) holds promise as a sustainable, clean, and renewable power source.

Much of the time, the MFC consists of an electrochemical reaction chamber with anode and cathode divided by a proton exchange membrane. In MFC, the oxidation reaction happens at the anode, where the biocatalyst of exoelectrogenic bacteria degrades the complex organic waste compound into lower organic compounds and electrons are produced, i.e., direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy.

Electrons move from the anode to the cathode by way of external load and thus they produce electricity. Non-conventional green power technology such as MFC is promoted because of the lack of harmful byproducts and simple supply of materials.

Research has gone into building Micro and Miniature Field-Effect Transistors (MFCs) that can be conveniently modified to powering Point of Care (POC) devices, wearable low-power wireless sensors and several in-vivo and in-vitro products. Despite current growth, low power performance, strong internal resistance, scaling-up impediments, current uncertainty face significant challenges in commercialization of MFC and its realistic applications.